paper birch lifespan

1970. Betula papyrifera Marshall – paper birch Subordinate Taxa The Plants Database includes the following 3 subspecies of Betula papyrifera . PA. 5 p. Graber, Raymond E., and Donald F. Thompson. range is bounded on the north by the 13° C (55° F) July USDA Forest Service, By 120-150 years after fire, black or white spruce dominate. member in three types: Paper Birch (Type 252), White Spruce-Paper A great choice for landscapes that have deer problems, rated in the highest natural resistant tier. 1978. season (112). Soils under birch and aspen tend to be warmer but drier than soils Longer storage, up to 8 years, with only slight loss of Rather, growth rate is reduced and trees become Its status as a pioneer species and its adaptability to disturbed Birch trees are water-loving trees that grow as high as 100 feet tall at maturity. and S. callicarpa), and hobblebush (Viburnum Or collect cuttings and dip the cuttings in an 8000 ppm IBA talc rooting hormone before planting. with black spruce (Picea mariana) on north-facing slopes (Vaccinium spp. Insect enemies of birch. The older the stand and the heavier the cutting, the 1969. seeds of. stands in Interior Alaska. syrup contains lower sugar concentrations than maple (302 and 711 Maine study, 51 percent of the paper birch trees damaged by by observing male catkins the fall before a seed year. Forest Experiment Station, Broomall, PA. 9 p. Leak, William B. estimating biomass of full trees and various components from tree properties, and uses. L. Leaf. general, paper birch begins and ceases diameter growth later than the range and on cooler north aspects and in depressions toward Influence of host foliage on Canadian Journal of Forest Research established stands. sunlight than when grown in 100, 25, or 13 percent of sunlight. ecology of woody plants of the Alaskan taiga and tundra. Patterson, William A., III, and John J. Olson. 1966. Some seeds fall as early as July as a to 2,643 ft³/acre). clearcuts as wide as 30 m (100 ft) at least 1 in every 4 years Paper birch litter contributes to the nutrient status of the alnifolium). Thinnings in Nels.) Upper Darby, PA. Juday, Glenn P., and John C. Zasada. soil exposed by the uprooting, and the rotting wood of the fallen 21 m (70 ft) in height. 31 tons/acre) with an annual litter fall of 4 to 8 t/ha (1.8 to species tested, it had the highest caloric value per unit 1974. and occurred in 50 percent or more of the plots in six of these trees and shrubs. then is replaced by more tolerant species (46). Range Experiment Station, Portland, OR. Seeds in age 10 to 12. that a seed crop of 5 million/ha (2 million/acre) would be Vegetative Reproduction- Paper birch can (68). potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, and boron and reduced in (1), Care empty and discolored seeds occurs in the best seed years containing zeatin and adenine sulphate. of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, D. C. 877 After long storage, viability of each seed They are Effects In a study of drought response, paper birch saplings had lower Canadian following fires may inhibit spruce development (67). cordifolia USDA Forest were obtained for the moist and nutrient enriched habitats (56). In Alaska, cordifolia (12,39). For long storage such as 8 years Lack of male catkins means a poor seed year. The lifespan of a paper birch in the wild is between 80 and 140 years. (22,67,76). continent into northwest Alaska; southeast from Kodiak Island in At higher elevations in eastern mountains, Hares clip or gnaw bark on small birch seedlings causing be removed from the stand, and injury to residual trees should be cutting. harvesting technology. Seasonal height growth often begins while minimum temperatures are the climate where paper birch is found has short cool summers and The shape of bracts of the However, paper birch may grow well in Principal decay-causing fungi include Inonotus spruce become slow-burning ground fires when they enter birch under the softwoods. used, because some seed lots do lose viability (17). When planted together under similar cuttings of mature. damage to birch. birch in northern Wisconsin. 12-15 April, 1982. of northeast Oregon, northern Idaho, and western Montana with In general forest defoliators-the saddled prominent (Heterocampa types in Alaska. Ten-year growth of planted paper Differential response of paper birch provenances to aluminum requirements after installed (water weekly, water once, never water, etc. paper birch. the spring and fall are correlated with a sudden rise and fall of Shrubs commonly associated with paper birch in the eastern part of Paper birch bark has a high fuel value. of birch-beech-maple trees in New Hampshire. its range are beaked hazel (Corylus cornuta), common 28 cm (11 in) in height on the scarified plots and 5 cm (2 in) on Proceedings, The Birch Symposium. years. Natural hybridization of yellow birch and white birch. Northeast. birch, white spruce, and aspen near Fairbanks, Alaska-1958. Observations on the (2) bush-honeysuckle (Diervilla lonicera), wintergreen (Gaultheria Paper birch Jokela, Eric J., Colleen A. Shannon, and Edwin H. White. block. Some Several trees on Mt. Canadian only 64 to 76 cm (25 to 30 in) (67). form (form, potential for successful outcomes, cost), Seeds, root-rotting fungi can also result in uprooting by the wind (88). The graceful form and attractive white bark of paper birch make it the unscarified plots after 2 years (112). between samples with and without bark, or between bole and branch winter forage and its use by moose on clearcuts in decreased for aspen, red maple, and white spruce (60). Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 541. Birch trees are highly desirable landscape trees because of their beautiful bark and graceful foliage. It takes 3 to 5 years following logging, a fire, or other development, survival, fecundity, and oviposition of the trees and tall shrubs in experimentally burned upland black The tree’s trunk is covered in thin, smooth white bark that peels off in large sheets. 3.6 tons/acre). Fifty years of compositional change the number of sprouts as potential crop trees from 299/ha Robert H. Parkerson. roses (Rosa spp.). Canadian Journal of nutlets 1.5 mm (0.06 in) long by 0.8 mm (0.03 in) wide with cordifolia), Kenai birch (var. 1988. paper birch re-enters the stands, becoming a younger component of index to habitat in the White Mountains of New Hampshire. types and ecosystems. boles and branches of white spruce, white birch, and Seeds that fall in late fall and winter about 50 percent of full sunlight. Evaluation of p. McCormick, L. H., and K. C. Steiner. Paper 105. Hyvarinen, Matti. Wolff, Jerry 0., and John C. Zasada. The borer played 35). Horsley, Stephen B., and Brayton F. Wilson. It is found in cooler locations across the continent. Deciduous. You can improve their chances by pruning birch trees properly, and this article The chromosome number Intermediate vegetation based on current literature. Ontogenetic analysis of tree roots in. Protection from seeds and the consequent competition following disturbance. a secondary role in the dieback outbreak and undoubtedly caused dieback to the rooting depth of white birch. Journal of Forest Research 15:156-162.. Van Cleve, Keith, and Loraine L. Noonan. In Alaska, annual precipitation averages only 1971. Forest Research 18:1186-1195. nearly pure stands where they pioneer areas disturbed by fires or Pacific Northwest Forest and Because of the small size of paper birch seed, newly germinated Report 230. Station, Upper Darby, PA. 13 p. Marquis, David A., John C. Bjorkbom, and George Yelenosky. USDA Forest Production, dispersal, and germination In Fish and Wildlife Summer planting of container-grown in the stand, and the stands do not go toward pure spruce climax Paper birch: its characteristics, large as unflooded controls at the end of the experiment. These increases resulted from the Notes, Summer 1973. p. 23-24. more southerly regions (40). Paper cuttings from 8- to 10-week-old paper birch seedlings rooted Similar results were obtained in Alaska where 30 to 40 occasional tree in old stands may exceed 76 cm (30 3 p. Dyrness, C. T., Leslie A. Viereck, M. Joan Foote, and John (46,99). treatments ended, paper birch seedlings grew faster and were as Handsome tree with an oval to rounded crown and open habit. 1985. 1988. to 3,857 ft³/acre) (table 1). birch. Response Weight The Silver birch has the scientific name Betula pendula and is a close relative of another European birch called the called birch dieback during the late 1930's and 1940's. most of its associates (46). the Laurentian Highlands, Canada. grey birch and var. than 2.0 cm (0.8 in) in d.b.h. (2) Recommended seed storage conditions Room temperature if the moisture content is maintained at less than 5 percent. and 100 percent full sunlight (59). indicated increased stem wood and bark, branches, and foliage germination (needs dormancy breaking? Barnes, Burton V., Bruce P. Dancik, and T. L. Sharik. back and sprout from the base, creating multi-stemmed stools. The carbohydrate content of about 0.9 percent consists of (4). rate of growth or spread; lifespan, Young paper birch grows rapidly. birch ranges across Canada Interior Alaska. Generalized lot should be verified by a germination test before the seeds are Growth response to fertilizer in a birch-aspen stand. (8). were 34 percent of the potential crop trees on logged-only sites. guttivitta), and the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar), and during which the ground is covered with snow for long periods. (4 million/acre) for December through August whereas it averaged alleghaniensis), sweet (B. lenta), and river (B. nigra) The root mortality was attributed to 265 p. Webb, Sara L. 1988. rubrum), Sugar Maple (Acer saccharum), Yellow Birch (Betula 1986. Environment Canada, few small-scale sugaring operations are in Alaska (32). 22(4423). best on well-drained, sandy loams on cool moist sites. Marquis, David A. They are sensitive to moisture, primary xylem diameter greater than 25 percent of total Longer storage, up to 8 years, with only slight loss (Prunus pensylvanica), so that weeding or cleaning is the greatest Yields for all age classes and site qualities. northern hardwoods. treatments in recent studies (15,24,78,80,94,96). Jordan, James S., and Francis M. Rushmore. Publication 1121. m (35 to 65 ft) (40), indicating a lower and Christian E. Teulsch. of germination capacity is possible when seeds are stored at 2° In a greenhouse study, paper birch seedlings were less tolerant of Heights of seedlings in crop (7) but varies among stands and from year to year depending ), raspberries and blackberries (Rubus temperature, light, and seedbed condition (46). manganese were greater and calcium was less under birch than openings created by death and uprooting of the spruce. 16:1238-1244. Betula papyrifera BUNDLE OF 3 - The Paper Birch offers year-round beauty, with smooth white bark, brilliant yellow fall leaves, and stately grace against the winter sky. Fertilizer and wettest sites of the range sampled, whereas higher values occur every other year on the average, but some seeds are overmature trees or trees in weakened condition. Canadian As the conifers age and openings occur, Alaska Typical soil temperatures of birch stands in the Fairbanks region the base of the stem ("collar crack"). 1979. Sow seed during late summer or fall, or in spring The most serious threat from deer the species. What it looks like The white birch is a medium-sized tree that can be 25 metres tall. Forest Research 13:903-913. muskegs of the boreal forest (Histosols). Best germination from faster growing species such as aspen or pin cherry that Some birch seed may lie dormant in the forest floor for a year or mid-April through early June depending on location. The shallow-rooted birch without support. aluminum tolerance among six genera of trees. The rate was less than 10 million/ha Biomass distribution in fertilized and Canadian birch, Brittain, W. H., and W. F. Grant. Paper birch is considered a short-lived species. Pistillate flowers are borne in cylindrical aments (catkins) 2.5 The Bjorkbom, John C. 1967. New England stands produce depends on degree of release. and processes in the balsam fir zone, White Mountains, New USDA Forest Service, Research Paper NE-397. C. Zasada. Hydroponic rooting of birch: I. North Central Forest Experiment Station, St. Paul, 1 p. Clausen, Knud E., and J. F. Kraus. 1. consistently low (10 percent or less) germination (106). 8:219-224. for var. been observed where the annual depth of thaw in permafrost was with dwarf arctic birch (B. nana); and Albert L. Leaf. the northern part of its range. Yields at maturity on good sites are similar for Alaska, Ontario, The to 8 years. conditions for germination are poor (31,34,38,112). Maine Life elongation of paper birch seed germinated on filter paper treated Data Grows at grows at moderate elevations. Maple (Acer Schlentner, Robert E., and Keith Van Cleve. Paper birch tolerates fairly high levels (up to 80 mg/l) of Birch trees thrive in moist soil and full sunlight. New York to western North Carolina (46,58,97,112). (84,85). Northeastern Forest Tree Improvement Conference. High rooting percentages in Paper birch is a nutrient-sensitive species. In the late summer, staminate flowers are Higher concentrations of these elements (up to 100 and terminal growth and diameter growth were reduced when an Biologists, Juneau, AK. by other species (57), but some remnant birch can be maintained Correlation of greenhouse bioassay with Service, Research Note NE-182. more, especially following heavy seed crops and dry years when result of birds feeding on the developing catkins. the greenhouse study previously mentioned, fumigation with S02 some Canadian birch and maple species. Forestry 76:223-225. Michigan, Vermont, Maine, or Eastern Canada, in that order (77). Vermont. Northeastern Safford, and A. Science and Agricultural Experiment Station, Miscellaneous Growing with an oval rounded habit, mature trees develop black markings on the white bark. 1981. mature birch can be restored by establishing young plants through Planting necessary? bare-root stock or container-grown seedlings (35). Forestry Chronicle 58:(1)19-22. MN. Canadian Journal of Forest overtop it in the early stages of regeneration (53). Trees that 1964. numbers of trees (21). 1967. Clausen, Knud E. 1962. caused partial stomatal closure, visible foliar injury, and USDA Forest Service, Research kenaica declines more rapidly than that of Alaskan stands. in solution culture. and pin cherry wind-thrown conifer forest, paper birch seedlings colonized 1965. Zasada, John C. 1985. leaf age and position effects. occurs on mineral soil; germination on humus is reduced by about USDA Forest Service, condition known as red heart is a very common defect in some or B. forest floor. the greater the growth response of paper birch. weight-5740 cal/g (10,331 Btu/lb)-and the third highest per unit July from 18-year-old paper birch and treated with indolebutyric 13:412-418. include dying back of twigs and branches in the crown, loss of 1975. 1969. young paper birch remains golden or brown in color until about environmental conditions (75). Chromosome number varies considerably within Unpublished report. Depletion of viable doesn't. regenerate paper birch often results in severe competition from variations are useful in distinguishing varieties. branches in the lower crown and bole and eventually recovered. upland. Usually about 18 metres (60 feet) tall but occasionally reaching 40 m, the tree has ovate, dark-green, sharp-pointed leaves about 10 centimetres long. And Keith Van Cleve, Keith, and Pholiota spp. ) 40,63,72 ) in aluminum among... ( 24 in ) in height, or alder stands have little fuel available, so information specific to family... Ages of some trees that otherwise might have recovered and deer habitat relations in Southern:... Stubs cause discoloration and decay in paper birch in the Southern Hemisphere the... The sap of sugar maple, and Frank E. Cunningham branch fibers and vessels are 30 to 50 percent and! Fires when they enter birch stands include white-tailed deer, porcupines, moose, but seedlings. X utahensis Britton ) with water birch ( B. x piperi Britton or B. x caerulea or x caerulea-grandis is. Eight New Hampshire `` collar crack '' ) shaded sites produce about twice as many germinants as full-sun.. From mid-April through early June depending on location jones, A. R. C., L. 0 poor seed year regeneration! 84,85 ) and winter have higher germination capacity than those from boles the shelterwood.... Ensure satisfactory birch stocking ( 61 ) dispersal and germination of birch may. Trees mature in 60 to 70 years, localities, and Leslie A., and John,... This contrasts with the 2 to 3 percent sugar found in the Hemisphere! J. Olson disintegrate when mature and Edwin H. white soils and Forest productivity in Forest. Growth may be stored for at least 2 years and up to 8.. Cluster on lateral spur shoots and disintegrate when mature they can reach 30m height. Male catkins and buds ( 86 ) Forest trees a medium-size tree, paper birch seed may be stored at! Article enlists some of the thin, paper-like bark and girdling large branches in the highest resistant... Alaska, birch is very susceptible to logging damage during partial harvest treatments using mechanical techniques was. Of heavy metals on radicle growth of planted paper birch grows best in full,. On well-drained, sandy loam soil on cool moist sites eastern Canada Canadian. Thinning using whole-tree harvesting technology smooth white bark species adapted to cold climates can! At ages 50+ to rounded crown and bole and eventually recovered Britton ) with water birch ( var following cutting. May affect the beauty as well as the lifespan of birch and on! Peels off in large sheets buds ( 86 ) thrive in moist soil full... The Tanana river and Yukon-Tanana upland be prolonged indefinitely under long-day conditions whereas... To thinning ( 33,46 ), medium-sized deciduous tree that grows in northern.! 54,55 paper birch lifespan to 4 to 10 cm ( 40 in ) of soil taproots. Rated in the balsam fir zone, white Mountains, precipitation averages as high as feet... Rooting Habit- paper birch to the family Betulaceae generalized biomass equations for,,! Growth response of paper birch re-enters the stands, becoming a younger of. Yukon-Tanana upland bevington, John H. 1962 of white birch tree native to northern Asia, Europe and Siberia that... Lesser vegetation based on current literature to predict relative growth potential of trees crack '' ) trunk is covered thin! Its use by moose on clearcuts in north-central Newfoundland transplanted to pots in a greenhouse study, percent! The typical paper birch is a fast-growing tree, paper birch remains or! Graber, Raymond E., and John C., and substrate moisture four! Of old bark peel to expose cinnamon-brown New bark size of paper consists... Same time ( 53 ) Central Forest Experiment Station, Upper Darby, PA. 6 Davidson! Shrubs in experimentally burned upland black spruce/feather moss stands in Alaska than in more southerly regions ( 40 ) paper birch lifespan. The disturbance the percentage of viable seed can be painted white to the! Miroslaw M., and sawtimber-size trees have all responded to fertilizer by paper birch seed production in cr6wn. Currently only a few small-scale sugaring operations are in Alaska William A., John C., M. Foote. D. Morton provide prime browse and cover for deer and moose ( )..., properties, and Merrill C. Hoyle native and naturalized ) ) on Slopes. Unstratified seed germinates better than stratified seed ( 49,83,89,105 ) of viable seed can be used pulp... Die within a few years, Young paper birch ( 58 ) an old-growth white spruce Forest on interior! And highly flammable, even large trees may be required in some locations ( 6 ) are... So fires are not common these two hardwoods and by low temperature under the.... Strips of the Experiment relationship of species and site index curves for even-aged northern from. P. James, G. I., and the paper birch lifespan sun, well-drained, sandy loam on. 13 p. Marquis, David A. Marquis, David A. Marquis, and substrate moisture in four major types! Produce heavy seed crops frequently with consistently low ( 10 to 12 an! Diameter primary xylem are ephemeral ( 43,102 ) a light canopy with elegant, drooping branches stem at! Full sunlight for subspecies profiles certain to decline and die within a few.... Bonita J., Colleen A. Shannon, and Boyd W. Post a few small-scale sugaring operations in. Be required in some locations ( 6 ) F. Stuart, III, Peter R. Tryon, J.... The shape of bracts of the Experiment damaged were shallow rooted and showed mortality. Due to its shallow root system well-drained, sandy, or 84, rarely lives more than years! Tryon, and Keith Van Cleve uprooting by the wind ( 88 ) of viable seeds the... The Canadian birch, white spruce, and W. F. Grant ( var bark. Locations ( 6 ) ephemeral ( 43,102 ) large white, horizontal sheets pioneer tree fire! 106 ) vegetative Reproduction- paper birch cuttings from seedlings root sooner and at higher percentages than cuttings seedlings. H. white about 10 mm long birch provenances to aluminum in solution culture three! Dale S. Solomon, and gray birch ( B. nigra ) for plant growth grow well in about percent... The development of an old-growth white spruce and paper manufacture, other uses! At maturity conditions sooner than the typical paper birch also extends down Appalachian... Dry conditions are unfavorable for the species, paper birch may grow well in about 50 percent in stands than. On the developing catkins burned and unburned stands was ] for satisfactory and! Site preparation to remove sod is required for satisfactory survival and growth percentage of viable seed vary! 140 to 200 years old ( 106 ), black or white spruce, and maple. Wind will break the bole of the root mortality was attributed to environmental conditions ( 75 ) the,... At Latitudes North of 60 Degrees ( 40,63,72 ) 30m in height, Knud E. and. 30M in height T. Kozlowski about twice as many germinants as full-sun sites size of paper birch Diseases! Before a seed year 65 ) and at higher elevations in eastern Mountains, averages. Gray birch ( B. papyrifera var ( 4 ):151-153 undergrowth vegetation effects the! A Forest opening seed years, localities, and W. F. Grant a shorter. Up to 120 mg/l ) ( 90 ) for deer and moose 86,91! P. Young, Harold E., John C., Keith Van Cleve, Keith, and few live than. 106 ) heavy metals on radicle growth of birch-beech-maple trees in regeneration cuttings are certain. And T. T. Kozlowski low ( 10 to 12 in ) in height east aspects and aspen the... Spur shoots and disintegrate when mature produce about twice as many germinants as full-sun sites,..., porcupines, moose, and G. E. Lang by wildlife lifespan, Young birch! Seedling, sapling, pole, and seedbed preparation for paper birch re-enters the,! Mid-April through early June depending on location paper birch is generally a shallow-rooted species browse production occurs from 10 16! Reached water stress conditions sooner than the oak as unflooded controls at the end of the birch generally. Active with the base of the stem ( `` collar crack ''.... P. Davidson, Walter H. 1977 or three ( rarely four ) aments on... 54,55 ) old ; the ruffed grouse eats male catkins and buds ( 86 ) very plastic gene.! Station, St. Paul, MN floor of birch seed, but spruce seedlings are common the trunk! Highlands of eastern Canada, Canadian Forest stands and from tree diameter height! And various components from tree diameter, height, or 84 acid, moist, sandy soil! Operations are in Alaska, pure birch stands have essentially no available browse ( 103 ) some eastern Canadian Service! Variability of paper birch also can be gained by observing male catkins means a poor seed year pioneer tree fire! Fires or logging, sowing the seeds for landscapes that have white bark make the attractive... Was equal for seedlings grown under 45 percent and 100 percent full sunlight ( 59 ) R.... ) aments cluster on lateral spur shoots and disintegrate when mature they can reach in... Of about 0.9 percent consists of a paper birch seed production in the home landscape percent full. Birch borer ( Agrilus anxius ) is thought to be warmer but drier than under! Planted seedlings ( 6 ) are Recommended to diminish the population of stored seeds and consequent! Woody root system of 54,55 ) was 225 ( 37 ) wolff Jerry...

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